Thursday, 17 February 2011
The monetary miracle is over
One should never underestimate the importance of luck. For almost a decade, the Bank of England proved to be very fortunate. It managed to simultaneously keep interest rates low, dramatically increase the money supply, and at the same time meet its inflation target.
How did it pull off this monetary miracle? The chart above provides a comprehensive explanation. It breaks the CPI inflation rate down into two components; the rate for services, which are mostly produced domestically; and rate for goods, which are almost entirely imported into the UK.
As the chart illustrates, prices for domestically produced services have grown fairly consistently at between three and four percent a year. This is far in excess of the Bank of England's inflation target. Prices of goods, on the other hand, were falling between 2000 and 2006, exerting powerful downward pressure on the aggregate inflation rate.
The reason for this negative inflation rate for goods is well understood. China industrialised, and exported huge quantities of clothes, footwear, and electronics. Prices for these items fell massively. In contrast, domestically produced prices increased rapidly in response the the extraordinary surge of Bank of England inspired monetary growth.
For many of us, this inflationary dichotomy between its goods and services will ring true. Anyone who regularly hired an accountant or chose to educate their children privately will be familiar with the four percent a year price hike.
So, it is fairly easy to see how the Bank of England got away with loose monetary policy and low inflation. Nevertheless, there is a more intriguing question embedded in this chart. To what extent did the surge in goods prices trigger a financial crisis?
To see how the turn-around in import prices might have precipitated the crisis, it is worth remembering how monetary policy worked in the past. In previous decades, rapid credit growth would have quickly fed through into prices. Eventually, interest rates would have increased, credit growth would have subsided, the economy would have slowed, and eventually inflation would have moderated.
This didn't happen in a decade before the crisis. Credit exploded while the overall inflation rate remains subdued on account of cheap imports. The Bank of England didn't feel obliged to raise rates, and the credit bubble just kept on growing.
Unfortunately, the old trade-off, like an unwelcome relative, returned in 2006. Inflationary pressures were building in the East,and import prices began to increase.
There were tentative signs of trouble in 2005. The Bank of England made a half-hearted attempt to raise interest rates to stem inflationary pressures. But the monetary policy committee took fright when it saw the property market weaken. Rather than tackle the growing inflationary menace, the committee buckled, reduced the bank rate and gave the housing bubble a new lease of life.
This weakness before the inflationary enemy resulted in renewed price pressures. In the early months of 2007, the Bank of England and its sister institutions in the US and Europe, were belatedly hiking interest rates.
This changing policy stance was sufficient to expose all the poor lending practices and financial sector abuses that had built up through the previous decade. Many banks, particularly small ones like Northern Rock, had cut interest margins to the bone and jacked up their leverage ratios. The slightest perturbation of interest rates and the financial system was in deep trouble.
The rest of the story you know.
So here we are - four years on from the crisis - and inflation has hit 4 percent, and it is likely to go higher. The Bank of England now believes itself to be trapped. It fears to raise interest rates on account of what it thinks a rate hike might do to the frail recovery. As for dealing with inflation, it has no strategy. There is no plan, just a vague hope that somehow things will turn out alright in the long run.
In fact, there never was a plan. The only thing that kept inflation down for ten years before 2006 was luck and a flotilla of Chinese cargo ships packed full of goods.